The ancient city of central India, Ujjain is situated in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. Ujjain is the administrative center of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division. The History of Ujjain has a significant value and a historical importance attached to it. The History of Ujjain states that initially the city was known as Ujjayini and as per epic Mahabharata Ujjayani was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom. The city is said to have been the residence of Ashoka (who subsequently became the emperor), at the time when he was the viceroy of the western provinces of the Maurya empire.
Ujjain was ruled by the Sungas and the Satavahanas consecutively in the Post-Mauryan period. The Satavahanas and the Indo-Scythian Sakas had contested for the city for a long period, but following the end of the Satavahana dynasty, the city was retained by the Sakas from the 2nd to the 4th century CE. After the conquest of the Sakas by the Guptas, the city soon gained importance and became an important seat in the annals of that empire.
According to the History of Ujjain, the city was a major center of mathematical and astronomical research in the 6th and 7th centuries. Brahmagupta, Varahamihira and Bhaskaracharya were the famous mathematicians who worked in the city. The picturesque of Ujjain was invaded by the forces of the Delhi Sultanate led by Iltutmish in 1235. Due to this invasion the city suffered widespread destruction and systematic desecration of temples. After this under the Mughal emperor, Akbar, the city became the capital of Malwa.