There are three main types of vegetation in Kaziranga National Park: alluvial inundated grasslands, tropical wet evergreen forests and tropical semi-evergreen forests. Kaziranga is the largest floodplain grassland of its kind, still surviving in India. Grasslands predominate in the west, with the tall grasses and reeds (also called elephant grass) on the higher ground and the shorter grasses growing around the waterbodies, locally known as 'beels'.
Amidst the grasses are numerous forbs and scattered trees of Bombax ceiba, Dillenia indica, Careya arborea and Emblica officinalis. The tropical wet evergreen forests are dominated by trees such as Aphanamixis polystachya, Talauma hodgsonii, Dillenia indica, Garcinia tinctoria, Ficus rumphii, Cinnamomum bejoighota, and species of Syzygium.
The common trees and shrubs are Albizia procera, Duabanga grandiflora, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Crateva unilocularis, Sterculia urens, Grewia serrulata, Mallotus philippensis, Bridelia retusa, Aphania rubra, Leea indica, and L. umbraculifera.
During the summer, the Silk Cotton tree (Bombax ceiba) turn 'red' with the synchronized blooming of the flowers and later disperse their seeds in white balls of fluff that float through the air. Landsat data for 1986 revealed that coverage by different vegetation in Kaziranga National Park is as follows: tall grasses 41 %, short grasses 11%, open jungles 29%, swamps 4%, rivers and water bodies 8%, and sand 6%.