The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great one-horned rhinoceros is the largest of the three Asian rhinoceros. It has a single black horn about 20-60 cm long and grey-brown hide with skin folds, which gives it a shield-plated appearance. Males show enormous development of the neck folds. The upper lip is semi-prehensile. Rhinoceros unicornis is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. It is lives in tall grasslands and forests in the foothills of the Himalayas. The Indian Rhinoceros can run as fast as 55 km/h or 35 miles/ per Hour for short periods and is an excellent swimmer. Indian Rhinoceros is Aquatic in nature differing from other types of its Species. It has excellent sense of hearing and smell but relatively poor eyesight.
The Rhinoceros looks at it has come out from the outdated pages of History, thick, ash and brown skin that creates huge folds all over its body specially the Indian Male Rhinoceros. The upper legs and shoulders are covered with wart like bumps, and it has very little body hair. It is the second largest land animal after the Elephants and weighs the same as its African counterpart. Matured Males are larger 2200- 3000 Kg as compared to the 1600 Kg of the females. The Indian Rhinoceros, the males and females have single horn but it is not present in the newborns. The horn is pure Keratin, stars to show after a year present in Human nails and grows to a length of 20 - 61 cm.
Indian Male Rhinoceros starts at Nine years of age and the Females start early at the age of four and they have their calves at the age of six to eight age. The Female whistles to attract the Male Rhinoceros for mating. Only the strong Male retains the power to breed while the weaker Males do not get a chance for mating. The Gestation period for the females is 16 months. A single calf is born at a gap of three to eight years. Mother Rhinoceros are very protective and active towards to the care of their calves. Mothers move with their calves for some years until their weaning, but the Males are Solitary in nature. The Indian Rhinoceros have a life span of 45 years.
The Indian Rhinoceros has faced condition of near extinction with a number of 200 some years back, due to Eastern Asian Cultural Myth. The number has increased to almost 2500 as special care is taken for the endangered species. The Indian Rhinoceros has home in Nepal- Royal Chitwan National Park and North - Eastern belt of India - Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park. The World Wildlife Fund has taken major steps to conserve the species.